Normatividad ingenua

El fundamento social de la cognición moral

Autores/as

Palabras clave:

Psicología moral, Evolución de la moralidad, Cognición animal, Psicología folk

Resumen

Para responder algunas preguntas atractivas, tales como si los animales son criaturas morales o cómo ha evolucionado la moral, propongo comenzar con una pregunta algo menos complicada: ¿poseen los animales cognición normativa? Las investigaciones recientes en psicología sugieren que el pensamiento normativo, o pensamiento deóntico (ought-thought), comienza temprano en el desarrollo humano. Las investigaciones recientes en filosofía sugieren que la psicología ordinaria se encuentra basada en el pensamiento normativo. Investigaciones recientes en primatología aportan evidencia de capacidades sofisticadas de aprendizaje cultural y social en grandes simios. Basándome en estas tres literaturas, sostengo que la variedad humana de cognición social y cognición moral abarca las mismas capacidades cognitivas y que los grandes simios también pueden ser criaturas normativas. Para argumentar esto, desarrollo una explicación de las normas sociales animales que comparte propiedades fundamentales con la explicación de Cristina Bicchieri sobre las normas sociales, pero que reduce los requerimientos cognitivos para poseer una norma social. Propongo un conjunto de cuatro pre-requisitos de desarrollo temprano implicados en la cognición social que constituyen lo que denomino normatividad ingenua: (1) la habilidad para identificar agentes, (2) la sensibilidad a las diferencias entre el grupo de pertenencia y el grupo externo, (3) la capacidad para el aprendizaje social de las tradiciones grupales y (4) la sensibilidad a lo apropiado. Examino la literatura sobre cognición en simios y presento evidencia empírica preliminar que apoya la existencia de normas sociales y normatividad ingenua en grandes simios. Aunque queda mucho trabajo empírico por hacer, espero haber ofrecido un marco teórico para estudiar la normatividad en otras especies y concluyo que deberíamos estar abiertos a la posibilidad de que la cognición normativa sea otro antiguo legado cognitivo que no es exclusivo de los seres humanos.

 

Publicación original: Andrews, K. (2020). Naïve Normativity: The Social Foundation of Moral Cognition. Journal of the American Philosophical Association, 6(1), 36-56. https://doi.org/10.1017/apa.2019.30

 

Biografía del autor/a

Kristin Andrews, Department of Philosophy, York University

York Research Chair in Animal Minds
Professor
Department of Philosophy
York University

Citas

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Publicado

2021-11-10

Cómo citar

Andrews, K., & Regues (Trad.), J. (2021). Normatividad ingenua: El fundamento social de la cognición moral. Epistemología E Historia De La Ciencia, 6(1), 179–203. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.unc.edu.ar/index.php/afjor/article/view/34427