El rol mediador de la pobreza en la asociación entre factores ambientales y el desempeño cognitivo de preescolares

Contenido principal del artículo

Carolina Fracchia
María Soledad Segretin
María Julia Hermida
Lucía Prats
Sebastián J. Lipina

Resumen

La asociación entre los factores ambientales y el desempeño cognitivo durante la infancia podría estar mediada por la pertenencia a hogares pobres (i.e., hogares con necesidades básicas insatisfechas o satisfechas). Este estudio exploró tal mediación en preescolares de diferentes contextos socioeconómicos. Para tal fin, se administraron tareas que demandaron atención ejecutiva, memoria de trabajo, control inhibitorio, planificación y razonamiento fluido a 250 niños/as de 4 y 5 años. Los resultados sugirieron que la pobreza medió los efectos de la composición familiar, la salud infantil, los factores de riesgo para la salud, cantidad de niños/as y adultos en el hogar, la edad materna y las actividades de alfabetización sobre la atención ejecutiva, el razonamiento fluido y el control inhibitorio. Estos resultados contribuyen a la comprensión de la relación entre los factores ambientales y el desarrollo cognitivo a través de la identificación de la pobreza como variable mediadora.

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