Una evaluación de la comprensión de estructuras sintácticas con alto costo de procesamiento en niños en edad escolar

Horacio Miguel Dotti, Leticia Maria Correa, Gabriela Rivera, Julia Benassi, María Clara Formichelli

Resumen


Se proporciona una evaluación de la habilidad para comprender oraciones de alto costo en niños hablantes del español, con el objetivo de identificar niños con riesgo de Trastorno Específico del Lenguaje/Trastorno del Desarrollo del Lenguaje. La investigación fue guiada por hipótesis lingüísticas/psicolingüísticas relacionadas con el costo de procesamiento oracional. Se empleó una batería de test que incluyó oraciones pasivas, cláusulas relativas e interrogativas con Quién y con Qué. La predicción fue que pasivas reversibles, relativas e interrogativas de objeto implicarían mayor demanda. Se testearon 390 niños (6 a 12 años) de dos escuelas primarias. Las escuelas se diferenciaron en función de factores socio-económicos. Los resultados fueron compatibles con las predicciones. Los factores socio-económicos demostraron influir sobre el desempeño general de los niños. Niños que puntuaron dos desvíos estándar por debajo de la media de respuestas correctas de su grupo etario (8.7%) fueron considerados en riesgo de déficit sintáctico.

Palabras clave: costo de procesamiento, comprensión sintáctica, niños escolares, trastorno específico del lenguaje.

An assessment of the comprehension of highly costly syntactic structures by school age children. An evaluation of Spanish-speaking schoolchildren’s ability to comprehend highly-costly sentences is provided, which aimed to identify children at risk of Specific Language Impairment/Developmental Language Disorder. The investigation was guided by linguistic/psycholinguistic hypotheses concerning sentence processing cost. A battery of tests was used, which included passive sentences, relative clauses, WH/WH+N questions in different conditions. Reversible passives, and object relative and WH Questions were predicted to be more demanding. 390 children (6-12 years of age) from 2 elementary schools were tested. The schools were distinguished as a function of social/economical factors. The results are compatible with the predictions. Social-economical factors are shown to influence children’s overall performance. Children whose scores were 2SD below the mean of correct responses of the age group (8.7%) were considered to be at risk of syntactic impairment.

Keywords: processing cost, syntactic comprehension, schoolchildren, specific language impairment.


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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30882/1852.4206.v10.n2.19772

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