Evidencias psicométricas de una versión breve de la mindful awareness attention scale en estudiantes universitarios

Contenido principal del artículo

Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez
Cirilo H. García Cadena
Mario Reyes-Bossio
Isabel Cabrera-Orosco
Luís A. Oblitas Guadalupe
Walter L. Arias Gallegos


En los últimos años, se ha observado un incremento de las intervenciones basadas en la atención plena para reducir los problemas psicológicos de los universitarios. Por lo tanto, es necesario contar con herramientas adecuadas para medirla. Considerando esta brecha, el objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un análisis psicométrico de la versión de cinco ítems de la Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS-5) en una muestra de 398 estudiantes universitarios peruanos con una edad promedio de 21.14 años (DE = 2.97). Con este fin, se administró a los participantes una batería de pruebas que incluyó el MAAS-5, WHO-FiveWell-Being Index, Patient Health Questionnarie-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 y la García’s Anger Proneness Scale. Los resultados indicaron que la estructura de un factor del MAAS-5 presentó un buen ajuste a los datos y una adecuada consistencia interna. Por otra parte, el MAAS-5 mostró correlaciones teóricamente coherentes con la depresión, ansiedad, ira y bienestar, e invarianza factorial respecto al sexo. Se concluye que el estudio brinda resultados preliminares que respaldan el uso del MAAS-5 como un instrumento con evidencias de validez, confiabilidad e invarianza para medir la atención plena en estudiantes universitarios del Perú.

Detalles del artículo

Artículos Originales


Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg015

Baer, R. A. (2018). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report. Current Opinion in Psychology, 28, 42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.10.015

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206. doi: 10.1177/1073191104268029

Bajaj, B., Robins, R. W., & Pande, N. (2016). Mediating role of self-esteem on the relationship between mindfulness, anxiety, and depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 127-131. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.085

Bamber, M. D., & Schneider, J. K. (2016). Mindfulness-based meditation to decrease stress and anxiety in college students: A narrative synthesis of the research. Educational Research Review, 18, 1-32. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2015.12.004

Bhattacherjee, A., & Premkumar, G. (2004). Understanding changes in belief and attitude toward information technology usage: A theoretical model and longitudinal test. MIS Quarterly, 28(2), 229-254. doi: 10.2307/25148634

Bilevicius, E., Smith, S. D., & Kornelsen, J. (2018). Resting-state network functional connectivity patterns associated with the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Brain Connectivity, 8(1), 40-48. doi: 10.1089/brain.2017.0520

Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012). Psychometric assessment of the mindful attention awareness scale (MAAS) among Chinese adolescents. Assessment, 19(1), 42-52. doi: 10.1177/1073191111415365

Bluth, K., Roberson, P. N., & Girdler, S. S. (2017). Adolescent sex differences in response to a mindfulness intervention: A call for research. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(7), 1900-1914. doi: 10.1007/s10826-017-0696-6

Borquist-Conlon, D. S., Maynard, B. R., Brendel, K. E., & Farina, A. S. (2019). Mindfulness-based interventions for youth with anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(2), 195-205. doi: 10.1177/1049731516684961

Britz, J., & Pappas, E. (2010). Sources and outlets of stress among university students: Correlations between stress and unhealthy habits. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 9(1). Recuperado de: https://www.kon.org/urc/v9/britz.html

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.

Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Linley, P. A., & Orzech, K. (2009). When what one has is enough: Mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 727-736. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.002

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

Byrne, B. M. (2008). Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring instrument: A walk through the process. Psicothema, 20(4), 872-882.

Campo-Arias, A., Miranda-Tapia, G. A., Cogollo, Z., & Herazo, E. (2015). Reproducibilidad del Índice de Bienestar General (WHO-5 WBI) en estudiantes adolescentes. Salud Uninorte, 31(1), 18-24.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Ventura-León, J., Martínez-Munive, R., & Barboza-Palomino, M. (2019). Traducción y validez de contenido de una escala breve de mindfulness para adolescentes peruanos. Enfermería Clínica, 29(5), 308-312. doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2018.10.002

Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464-504. doi: 10.1080/10705510701301834

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233-255. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Chiesi, F., Donati, M. A., Panno, A., Giacomantonio, M., & Primi, C. (2017). What about the different shortened versions of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale? Psychological Reports, 120(5), 966-990. doi: 10.1177/0033294117711132

Coffey, K. A., Hartman, M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness, 1(4), 235-253. doi: 10.1007/s12671-010-0033-2

Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Eribaum Associates.

Cooke, R., Bewick, B. M., Barkham, M., Bradley, M., & Audin, K. (2006). Measuring, monitoring and managing the psychological well-being of first year university students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 34(4), 505-517. doi: 10.1080/03069880600942624

Credé, M., Harms, P., Niehorster, S., & Gaye-Valentine, A. (2012). An evaluation of the consequences of using short measures of the Big Five personality traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(4), 874-888.doi: 10.1037/a0027403

de Bruin, E. I., Meppelink, R., & Bögels, S. M. (2015). Mindfulness in higher education: Awareness and attention in university students increase during and after participation in a mindfulness curriculum course. Mindfulness, 6(5), 1137-1142. doi: 10.1007/s12671-014-0364-5

Deasy, C., Coughlan, B., Pironom, J., Jourdan, D., & Mannix-McNamara, P. (2014). Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: A mixed method enquiry. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e115193. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115193

Desbordes, G., Gard, T., Hoge, E. A., Hölzel, B. K., Kerr, C., Lazar, S. W., ... & Vago, D. R. (2015). Moving beyond mindfulness: defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness, 6(2), 356-372. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0269-8

Dimitrov, D. M. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43(2), 121-149. doi: 10.1177/0748175610373459

DiStefano, C., Liu, J., Jiang, N., & Shi, D. (2018). Examination of the weighted root mean square residual: Evidence for trustworthiness? Structural Equation Modeling, 25(3), 453-466. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2017.1390394

Edwards, P., Roberts, I., Sandercock, P., & Frost, C. (2004). Follow-up by mail in clinical trials: does questionnaire length matter? Controlled Clinical Trials, 25(1), 31-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2003.08.013

Eisenberg, D., Gollust, S. E., Golberstein, E., & Hefner, J. L. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and suicidality among university students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 534-542. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.77.4.534

Falkenström, F. (2010). Studying mindfulness in experienced meditators: A quasi-experimental approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(3), 305-310. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.10.022

Ferguson, C. J. (2009). An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 532 -538.doi: 10.1037/a0015808

Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, C. (2013). Nonnormal and categorical data in structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock, & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (pp. 439-492). Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age

Flora, D. B., & Curran, P. J. (2004). An empirical evaluation of alternative methods of estimation for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychological Methods, 9(4), 466-491. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.9.4.466

Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1045-1062. doi: 10.1037/a0013262.

Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., & Richler, J. J. (2012). Effect size estimates: Current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 2-18. doi: 10.1037/a0024338

Galante, J., Dufour, G., Vainre, M., Wagner, A. P., Stochl, J., Benton, A., ... & Jones, P. B. (2018). A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health, 3(2), e72-e81. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30231-1

Gallego, J., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Cangas, A. J., Langer, Á. I., & Mañas, I. (2014). Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 17, 1-6. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2014.102

García-Cadena, C. H., Daniel-González, L., Valle de la O, A., Caycho-Rodríguez, T., & Téllez López, A. (2018). Construct validity of a new scale for assessing anger proneness (APS-G). SaludMental, 41(5), 229-236. doi: 10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2018.034

Goh, H. E., Marais, I., & Ireland, M. J. (2017). A Rasch model analysis of the mindful attention awareness scale. Assessment, 24(3), 387-398. doi: 10.1177/1073191115607043

Goldberg, S. B., Tucker, R. P., Greene, P. A., Davidson, R. J., Wampold, B. E., Kearney, D. J., & Simpson, T. L. (2018). Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 59, 52-60.doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.011

Greenberg, J., Reiner, K., & Meiran, N. (2012). “Mind the trap”: Mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity. PloS ONE, 7(5), e36206. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036206

Hirschfeld, G., & Von Brachel, R. (2014). Multiple-Group confirmatory factor analysis in R-A tutorial in measurement invariance with continuous and ordinal indicators. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 19(7), 1-12. Recuperado de https://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=19&n=7

Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Fang, A., & Asnaani, A. (2012). Emotion dysregulation model of mood and anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 29(5), 409-416. doi: 10.1002/da.21888

Hollis-Walker, L., & Colosimo, K. (2011). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and happiness in non-meditators: A theoretical and empirical examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 222-227. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.09.033

Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., & Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 773-777. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.005

Kemper, C. J., Trapp, S., Kathmann, N., Samuel, D. B., & Ziegler, M. (2019). Short versus long scales in clinical assessment: Exploring the trade-off between resources saved and psychometric quality lost using two measures of obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Assessment, 26(5), 767–782. doi: 10.1177/1073191118810057.

Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., ... & Hofmann, S. G. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 763-771. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.05.005

Kline, P. (1999). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge

Kong, F., Wang, X., & Zhao, J. (2014). Dispositional mindfulness and life satisfaction: The role of core self-evaluations. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.09.002

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ‐9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606-613. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2003). The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: Validity of a two-item depression screener. Medical Care, 41(11), 1284-1292. doi: 10.1097/01.MLR.0000093487.78664.3C

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(5), 317-325. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00004

Kruyen, P. M., Emons, W. H., & Sijtsma, K. (2013). On the shortcomings of shortened tests: A literature review. International Journal of Testing, 13(3), 223-248. doi: 10.1080/15305058.2012.703734

Li, C. H. (2016). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behavior Research Methods, 48(3), 936-949. doi: 10.3758/s13428-015-0619-7

Lynch, S., Gander, M. L., Kohls, N., Kudielka, B., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness‐based coping with university life: A non‐randomized wait‐list‐controlled pilot evaluation. Stress and Health, 27(5), 365-375. doi: 10.1002/smi.1382

Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler's (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11(3), 320-341. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2

Martín-Asuero, A., & García de la Banda, G. (2007). Las ventajas de estar presente: desarrollando una conciencia plena para reducir el malestar psicológico. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(2), 369-384.

McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Medvedev, O. N., Norden, P. A., Krägeloh, C. U., & Siegert, R. J. (2018). Investigating unique contributions of dispositional mindfulness facets to depression, anxiety, and stress in general and student populations. Mindfulness, 9(6), 1757-1767. doi: 10.1007/s12671-018-0917-0

Medvedev, O. N., Siegert, R. J., Feng, X. J., Billington, D. R., Jang, J. Y., & Krägeloh, C. U. (2016). Measuring trait mindfulness: How to improve the precision of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale using a Rasch model. Mindfulness, 7(2), 384-395. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0454-z

Michalak, J., Teismann, T., Heidenreich, T., Ströhle, G., & Vocks, S. (2011). Buffering low self-esteem: The effect of mindful acceptance on the relationship between self-esteem and depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 751-754. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.11.029

Mrazek, M. D., Franklin, M. S., Phillips, D. T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J. W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science, 24(5), 776-781. doi: 10.1177/0956797612459659

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2015). Mplus User’s Guide. 7th Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Recuperado de http://www.statmodel.com/ugexcerpts.shtml

Osman, A., Lamis, D. A., Bagge, C. L., Freedenthal, S., & Barnes, S. M. (2016). The mindful attention awareness scale: further examination of dimensionality, reliability, and concurrent validity estimates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(2), 189-199. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2015.1095761

Park, T., Reilly-Spong, M., & Gross, C. R. (2013). Mindfulness: a systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patient-reported outcome (PRO). Quality of Life Research, 22(10), 2639-2659. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0395-8

Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., & Davis, P. J. (2013). The positive effects of mindfulness on self-esteem. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(5), 376-386. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2013.807353

Pérez, E., & Medrano, L. (2010). Análisis Factorial Exploratorio: Bases Conceptuales y Metodológicas. Revista Argentina de Ciencias del Comportamiento, 2(1), 58-66. doi: 10.32348/1852.4206.v2.n1.15924

Pérez San Gregorio, M. A., Martín Rodríguez, Z. A., Borda, M., & Del Río, C. (2003). Estrés y rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios. Cuadernos de Medicina Psicosomática y Psiquiatría de Enlace, 67(68), 26-33. Recuperado de: http://www.editorialmedica.com/download.php?idart=159

Quaglia, J. T., Brown, K. W., Lindsay, E. K., Creswell, J. D., & Goodman, R. J. (2015). From conception to operationalization of mindfulness. In K. W. Brown, J. D. Creswell, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 151-170). New York, NY: Guilford.

R Development Core Team (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Recuperado de http://www.R-project.org/

Raykov, T., & Hancock, G. R. (2005). Examining change in maximal reliability for multiple-component measuring instruments. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 58(1), 65-82. doi: 10.1348/000711005X38753

Robins, C. J., Keng, S. L., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experience and expression: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 117-131. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20857

Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling and more. Version 0.5–12 (BETA). Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1-36. doi: 10.18637/jss.v048.i02

Rosselló, J., Zayas, G., & Lora, V. (2016). Impacto de un adiestramiento en meditación en consciencia plena (mindfulness) en medidas de ansiedad, depresión, ira y estrés y consciencia plena: Un estudio piloto. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 27(1), 62-78.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74. Recuperado de http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2011). Emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 1116-1119. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.037

Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, J., Santesteban-Echarri, O., Pryor, I., McGorry, P., & Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2018). Web-Based Mindfulness Interventions for Mental Health Treatment: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JMIR Mental Health, 5(3), e10278. doi: 10.2196/10278

Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Anderson, K. G. (2000). On the sins of short-form development. Psychological Assessment, 12(1), 102-111. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.12.1.102

Smith, O. R., Melkevik, O., Samdal, O., Larsen, T. M., & Haug, E. (2017). Psychometric properties of the five-item version of the Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) in Norwegian adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45(4), 373-380. doi: 10.1177/1403494817699321

Storrie, K., Ahern, K., & Tuckett, A. (2010). A systematic review: students with mental health problems-a growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1), 1-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01813.x

Takebe, M., Takahashi, F., & Sato, H. (2015). Mediating Role of Anger Rumination in the Associations between Mindfulness, Anger-In, and Trait Anger. Psychology, 6(8), 948-953. doi:10.4236/psych.2015.68093

Terwee, C. B., Bot, S. D., de Boer, M. R., van der Windt, D. A., Knol, D. L., Dekker, J., ... & de Vet, H. C. (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60(1), 34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.03.012

Tsaousis, I., & Kazi, S. (2013). Factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on trait emotional intelligence across gender and age. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(2), 169-173.doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.08.016

Van Dam, N. T., Earleywine, M., & Borders, A. (2010). Measuring mindfulness? An item response theory analysis of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(7), 805-810. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.020

Van de Schoot, R., Lugtig, P., & Hox, J. (2012). A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(4), 486-492. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2012.686740

Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational research methods, 3(1), 4-70. doi: 10.1177/109442810031002

Ventura-León, J. L. (2017). Intervalos de confianza para coeficiente Omega: Propuesta para el cálculo. Adicciones, 30(1), 77-78. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.962

Wang, Y., & Kong, F. (2014). The role of emotional intelligence in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and mental distress. Social Indicators Research, 116(3), 843-852. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0327-6.

World Health Organization. (1998). WHO info package: Mastering depression in primary care, versión 2.2. Copenhagen: WHO, Regional Office for Europe

Wright, S., Day, A., & Howells, K. (2009). Mindfulness and the treatment of anger problems. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(5), 396-401. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.06.008

Yu, C. Y. (2002). Evaluation of model fit indices for latent variable models with categorical and continuous outcomes (tesis doctoral inédita). Universidad de California: Los Ángeles. Recuperado de http://www.statmodel.com/download/Yudissertation.pdf