Estructura factorial y fiabilidad del Cuestionario de Salud General de Goldberg (GHQ-12) en universitarios ecuatorianos

Rodrigo Moreta-Herrera, Claudio López-Calle, Martha Ramos-Ramírez, Javier López-Castro

Resumen


Los instrumentos de medición sobre la salud mental no están adaptados y validados en ecuatorianos y esto dificulta el quehacer del psicólogo. Objetivos: Verificar el modelo del GHQ-12 de un solo factor, y determinar la fiabilidad y validez. Diseño: Estudio cuantitativo instrumental con análisis multivariados de los ítems, factorial y de consistencia interna con el Cuestionario de Salud General de Goldberg de 12 ítems. Muestra: 587 universitarios (71.4% mujeres), con una media de edad M = 21.2 años, de las ciudades de Ambato (50.5%) y Cuenca (49.5%) en Ecuador y de tres centros universitarios. Resultados: Se confirma el modelo unidimensional con errores correlacionados del GHQ-12 X2(39) = 65.7; X2/Df = 1.7; GFI = .96; CFI = .96; NFI = .92; RMSEA = .053 [.029 – .075]. La fiabilidad de la prueba es adecuada ? = 0.84 y converge con el Bienestar Psicológico r = .674. Conclusiones: El GHQ-12 presenta evidencias de validez para uso en evaluaciones sobre salud mental con base en la muestra investigada.

Palabras clave: análisis factorial, estructura, fiabilidad, salud mental.

Factor structure and reliability of the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in ecuadorian university students. Mental health measurement instruments are not adapted and validated in Ecuadorian and this makes it difficult for work’s psychologist. Aims: Checking the GHQ-12 model like a single factor, and decide the reliability and validity of the test. Design: Quantitative instrumental study with a multivariate analysis of the items, factorial and internal consistency using the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire of 12 items. Sample: 587 university students (71.4% women), with an average age of M = 21.2 years, in Ambato (50.5%) and Cuenca (49.5%) cities from Ecuador and in three universities centers. Outcomes: The one-dimensional model with correlated errors of the GHQ-12 is confirmed X2(39)= 65.7; X2/Df = 1.7; GFI = .96; CFI = .96; NFI = .92; RMSEA =.053 [.029 -.075]. The test’s reliability is adequate ? = .84 and converges with psychological well-being r = .674. Conclusions: The GHQ-12 presents evidence of validity for use in mental health assessments based on the sample investigated.

Keywords: Factor analysis, structure, reliability, mental health


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30882/1852.4206.v10.n3.20405

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