Temporal perception and delay aversion: A videogame screening tool for the early detection of ADHD

Andrés Hugo Méndez Oehninger, Ana Martín, Ana Cristina Pires, Alejandro Vázquez, Alejandro Maiche, Fernando González, Alejandra Carboni

Resumen


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral syndrome where inattention and/or hyperactivity impair social, academic or occupational function. Cognitive impairments in temporal abilities and delay aversion have been related to ADHD. The aim of this study is to design a game-like software that assesses temporal perception for the early detection of ADHD. Method: Two groups of 7 to 10 children (17 with ADHD and 17 control children) were compared on their performance on four game-like software based on Delay Aversion, Anticipation, Synchronization Tapping and Time reproduction experimental tasks. Results: All games detected significant differences between groups in accuracy or variability. The Discriminant function correctly classified 82.4% of the cases. Conclusions: Although the conversion of experimental tasks into game-like software implies a compromise between experimental rigour and screening efficiency, the use of videogames to measure cognitive processes is a potential tool for preventive healthcare.

Key Words:ADHD; Temporal processing; Screening; Computer games

 

Procesamiento temporal y aversión a la espera: el uso de videojuegos como herramienta de tamizaje para la detección temprana de TDAH. El trastorno por déficit atencional e hiperactividad (TDAH) está caracterizado por un patrón comportamental de inatención y/o hiperactividad que afecta el desempeño social, académico y laboral de las personas. Varios estudios han reportado alteraciones cognitivas en el TDAH, vinculadas al procesamiento temporal y a la aversión a la postergación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue diseñar una herramienta de tamizaje computarizada basada en tareas experimentales de procesamiento temporal y aversión a la espera para la detección temprana del TDAH.Método: Dos grupos de niños con edades entre 7 y 10 años (17 con TDAH y 17 controles), fueron evaluados en su desempeño en cuatro juegos computarizados basados en cuatro diferentes paradigmas experimentales: Aversión a la Postergación, Anticipación, Sincronización y Reproducción Temporal. Resultados: Todos los juegos mostraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a precisión o variabilidad para alguna de las condiciones. El análisis discriminante clasificó correctamente 82,4% de los casos. Conclusión: A pesar del compromiso que existe entre la rigurosidad de una tarea experimental y su conversión a un formato lúdico computarizado, el uso de videojuegos para medir procesos cognitivos es una potencial herramienta en el campo de la salud preventiva.

Palabras claves: TDAH; Procesamiento temporal; Tamizaje; Juegos de video

Procesamiento temporal y aversión a la espera: el uso de videojuegos como herramienta de tamizaje para la detección temprana de TDAH

Palabras clave


ADHD; Temporal processing; Screening; Computer games

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). The child behavior checklist. Burlington, VT: University Associates in Psychiatry.

American Psychiatric Association (2000).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Antrop, I., Stock, P., Verté, S., Wiersema, J. R., Baeyens, D., & Roeyers, H. (2006). ADHD and delay aversion: The influence of non-temporal stimulation on choice for delayed rewards. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 47(11), 1152–1158. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01619.

Barkley, R. A. (1991). The ecological validity of laboratory and analogue assessment methods of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19(2), 149–178.

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral Inhibition, Sustained Attention, and Executive Functions: Constructing a Unifying Theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65-94.

Barnett, R., Maruff, P., Vance, A., Luk, E. S. L., Costin, J., Wood, C., & Pantelis, C. (2001). Abnormal executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The effect of stimulant medication and age on spatial working memory. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1107–1115. doi: 10.1017/S0033291701004172

Bitsakou, P., Psychogiou, L., Thompson, M., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2009). Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: An empirical investigation of the broader phenotype. Neuropsychologia, 47(2), 446-456. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.09.015

Brüchmuller, K., Margraf, J., & Schneider, S. (2012). Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord With Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(1), 128-138.

Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Milham, M. P., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(3), 117–23. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.011

Castellanos, F. X., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Scheres, A., Martino, A. Di, Hyde, C., & Walters, J. R. (2005). Varieties of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Related Intra-Individual Variability. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1416–1423. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.12.005

Conners, C. K. (1973). Rating scales for use in drug studies with children. Psychopharmacology Bulletin: Special issue on Pharmacotherapy of children, 24-84.

Dalen, L., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Hall, M., & Remington, B. (2004). Inhibitory Deficits, Delay Aversion and Preschool AD/HD: the Dual Pathway Model Implications. Neural Plasticity, 11(1), 1-11. doi:10.1155/NP.2004.1

Droit-Volet, S. (2013). Time perception in children: A neurodevelopmental approach. Neuropsychologia, 51(2), 220–234. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.09.023

Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., & Cornblatt, B. (1978). Attentional measures in a study of children at high-risk for schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 14, 93-98.

Forbes, G. B. (1998). Clinical Utility of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 461–476.

Heller, M. D., Roots, K., Srivastava, S., Schumann, J., Srivastava, J., & Hale, S. (2013). A Machine Learning-Based Analysis of Game Data for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Assessment. Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications, 2(5), 291-298.

Kerns, K. A., McInerney, R. J., & Wilde, N. (2001). Investigation of time reproduction, working memory, and behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychology, 7, 21–31. doi: 10.1076/chin.7.1.21.3149

Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Luman, M., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: A review and theoretical appraisal. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 183–213. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.11.001

Marco, R., Miranda, A., Schlotz, W., Melia, A., Mulligan, A., Müller, U., Andreou, P., Butler, L., Christiansen, H.,Gabriels, I.,Medad, S., Albrecht, B.,Uebel, H.,Asherson, P.,Banaschewski, T., Gill, M.,Kuntsi, J.,Mulas, F.,Oades, R.,Roeyers, H.,Steinhausen, H. C.,Rothenberger, A.,Faraone, S.V., &Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2009). Delay and reward choice in ADHD: an experimental test of the role of delay aversion. Neuropsychology, 23, 367–380. doi: 10.1037/a0014914

Martel, M. M. (2009). Research review: a new perspective on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: emotion dysregulation and trait models. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(9), 1042–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02105.x

Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2005). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(4), 377–384. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000153228.72591.73

Mcinerney, R. J., & Kerns, K. A. (2003). Time Reproduction in Children With ADHD : Motivation Matters. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 9(2), 91-108. doi :10.1076/chin.9.2.91.14506

Moffitt, T., & Melchior, M. (2007). Why does the worldwide prevalence of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder matter? American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(6), 856–858. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.856.

Riveros, R., Sepúlveda, A., Figueroa, P., & Rosas, R. (2015). Memoria de trabajo y atención pueden ser usados como un nuevo test de screening de inteligencia. CEDETi UC Papeles de Investigación, 4. Recovered from: http://www.cedeti.cl/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/N°4-FIX-OI-PAPELES-ABRIL-15.pdf

Rubia, K., Taylor, A., Taylor, E., & Sergeant, J. A. (1999). Synchronization, anticipation, and consistency in motor timing of children with dimensionally defined attention deficit hyperactivity behaviour. Perceptual Motor Skills, 89, 1237–1258. doi: 10.2466/PMS.89.7.1237-1258

Rubia, K., Halari, R., Christakou, A., & Taylor, E. (2009). Impulsiveness as a timing disturbance: neurocognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder during temporal processes and normalization with methylphenidate. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1525), 1919–1931. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0014

Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The Motivational Pull of Video Games: A Self-Determination Theory Approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30(4), 344–360. doi: 10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8

Sagvolden, T., Aase, H., Zeiner, P., & Berger, D. (1998). Altered reinforcement mechanisms in attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavior and Brain Research, 94(1), 61–71.

Salum, G. A, Sergeant, J., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Vandekerckhove, J., Gadelha, A.,… Rohde, L. A. P. (2014). Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 44(3), 617–31. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713000639

Smith, A., Taylor, E., Rogers, J. W., Newman, S., & Rubia, K. (2002). Evidence for a pure time perception deficit in children with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(4), 529–542. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00043

Solanto, M. V., Abikoff, H., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., & Schachar, R. (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: A supplement to the NIMH Multimodal Treatment study of AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(3), 215-228.

Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Bitsakou, P., & Thompson, M. (2010). Beyond the Dual Pathway Model: Evidence for the Dissociation of Timing, Inhibitory, and Delay-Related Impairments in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 345–355. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2009.12.018

Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2002). Psychological heterogeneity in AD/HD — a dual pathway model of behaviour and cognition. Behavioral Brain Research, 130(1-2), 29–36. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4328(01)00432-6

Thorell, L. B. (2007). Do delay aversion and executive function deficits make distinct contributions to the functional impact of ADHD symptoms? A study of early academic skill deficits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 48(11), 1061–1070. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01777.x

Toplak, M. E., Rucklidge, J. J., Hetherington, R., John, S. C. F., & Tannock, R. (2003). Time perception deficits in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6), 888–903. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00173

Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2005a). Time perception: Modality and duration effects in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 639–654. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-6743-6

Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2005b). Tapping and Anticipation Performance in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Perceptual Motor Skills, 100(3), 659-75.

Viola L., & Garrido G. (2009). Características epidemiológicas del trastorno por déficit atencional en los escolares uruguayos. Revista de Psiquiatría del Uruguay, 73(2), 157-168.




Copyright (c) 2015 Revista Argentina de Ciencias del Comportamiento