PTERION TYPES AND MORPHOMETRY IN MIDDLE AND SOUTH ANATOLIAN ADULT SKULLS. Tipos de pterión y morfometría en cráneos adultos de Anatolia media y sur


  • Kaan Cimen Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas.
  • Ilhan Otag Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas.
  • Mehmet Cimen Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas.


Palabras clave:

pterion, morphometry, human skull, human anatomy, morphology, morfometría, cráneo, anatomía, morfología.


Pterion is an irregular H letter shaped sutural confluence in the temporal fossa formed by frontal, parietal bones, great wing of sphenoid bone and temporal squama. Pterion is classified in 4 types as follows: sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, epipteric and stellate. The pterion represents: anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, middle cerebral artery, Broca’s motor speech area, insula and stem of the lateral cerebral sulcus. This pterion junction has been used as a common extra-cranial landmark for surgeons in microsurgical and surgical approaches pertaining to important pathologies of this region. In the present study, our aim was to determine pterion types, to estimate distances between pterion and some special landmarks by which means to contribute to the related literature by comparing the data with other studies focusing on various populations. Pterion types identified by observation and measurements were taken by steel Vernier caliper. This study was conducted with 75 adult skulls (both sides 150 pterion). Skulls were classified with regard to gender as: 47 male and 28 female. Pterion types observed in both genders were classified as: sphenoparietal type  82% (84.04% in male, 78.57% in female), frontotemporal type 4.66% (5.31% in male, 3.57% in female), epipteric type 10.66% (8.51%  in male, 14.28% in female) and stellate type  2.66% (2.12% in male, 3.57% in female). These findings will be usefull for clinicians, anthropologists and forensics.


El pterion es una confluencia sutural con forma de letra H irregular en la fosa temporal formada por los huesos frontales, parietales, el ala mayor del hueso esfenoides y la escama temporal. Pterion se clasifica en 4 tipos de la siguiente manera: Esfenoparietal, frontotemporal, epiptérico y estrellado. El pterion representa: la rama anterior de la arteria meníngea media, la arteria cerebral media, el área motora del habla de Broca, la ínsula y el vástago del surco cerebral lateral. Esta unión del pterión se ha utilizado como un hito extracraneal común para los cirujanos en enfoques microquirúrgicos y quirúrgicos relacionados con patologías importantes de esta región. En el presente estudio, nuestro objetivo es determinar los tipos de pterion, estimar las distancias entre el pterión y algunos puntos de referencia especiales para contribuir a la literatura relacionada mediante la comparación de los datos con otros estudios que se centran en diversas poblaciones. Los tipos de pterión identificados por observación y mediciones fueron tomados por un calibrador a Vernier de acero. Este estudio se realizó con 75 cráneos adultos (ambos lados 150 pterion). Los cráneos se clasifican en función del género como: 47 hombres y 28 mujeres. Los tipos de pterion observados en ambos sexos se clasifican en: tipo esfenoparietal 82% (84,04% en hombres, 78,57% en mujeres), tipo frontotemporal 4,66% (5,31% en hombres, 3,57% en mujeres), tipo epiptérico 10,66% (8,51% en hombres, 14,28% en mujeres) y tipo estrellado 2,66% (2,12% en hombres, 3,57% en mujeres). Estos hallazgos serán útiles para los clínicos, antropólogos y médicos forenses.

Biografía del autor/a

Kaan Cimen, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas.

Research Assistant, Ph.D, Department of Anatomy.

Ilhan Otag, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas.

Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy

Mehmet Cimen, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas.

Professor, Head of the Department of Anatomy.


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