THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR OLFACTORY NUCLEUS IN THE HUMAN OLFACTORY BULB AND PEDUNCLE. Reconstrucción tridimiensional del núcleo olfatorio anterior en el bulbo y pedúnculo olfatorio humano

Steven Berendsen, Jocelyne V M Peters, Evelien Huisman, Willie Vörster, Piet Hoogland

Resumen


El bulbo y pedúnculo olfatorio humano contienen muchos grupos celulares más o menos separados que habitualmente son considerados como parte del núcleo olfatorio anterior retro-bulbar (AON). La presunción que estos grupos celulares sean considerados como extensión rostral del AON en el hemisferio rostral retrocede a la descripción de un único caso por Crosby y Humphrey (1941). Para mejorar nuestra comprensión de la anatomía del AON bulbar y peduncular humano investigamos la morfología, forma y tamaño de estas partes en este núcleo en tejido post-mortem de individuos de edades conocidas. Se obtuvieron seis bulbos y pedúnculos olfatorios, incluyendo la sustancia perforada anterior (SPA), de cerebros donados; se realizaron cortes seriales horizontales a 40µm y se tiñó con substancia de Nissl. Las neuronas de tamaño mediano a grande de esta parte del AON se tiñeron intensamente y tenían un diámetro promedio de 16µm. La reconstruc-ción tridimensional demostró que en todos los casos, excepto uno, el AON bulbar y peduncular consistieron en una cadena discontinua de grupos celulares conectados por puentes de neuropilas pobres o libres de células. El número de grupos celulares y de puentes conectores difiere en cada individuo. Concluimos que las porciones bulbar y peduncular del AON humano debería ser considerado como una especialización humana más que como una extensión rostral del área AON retro-bulbar. Esto es acorde con las propiedades neuro-clínicas previamente publicadas y la degeneración temprana selectiva, pre-clínica, de estos nichos celulares en la enfermedad neuro-degenerativa.

 

The human olfactory bulb and peduncle contain several more or less separated cell groups that are usually regarded to be part of the retrobulbar anterior olfactory nucleus (AON). The assumption that these cell groups are to be considered as the rostral extension of the AON in the rostral hemisphere goes back to the description of one single case by Crosby and Humphrey (1941). To improve our understanding of the anatomy of the human bulbar and peduncular AON, we investigated the morphology, size and shape of these parts of this nucleus in postmortem tissue of aged individuals. Six olfactory bulbs and peduncles including the substantia perforata anterior (SPA) were obtained from donor brains and 40µm horizontal serial sections were cut and stained with Nissl substance. The medium to large sized neurons of these parts of the AON were intensely stained and had an average diameter of 16µm. Three dimensional reconstruction demonstrated that in all but one of the cases the bulbar and peduncular AON consisted on a discontinuous chain of cell groups connected by cell poor to cell free bridges of neuropile. The number of cell groups and the connecting bridges differ in every individual. We arrived at the conclusion that the bulbar and peduncular parts of the human AON should be regarded a human specialization rather than just being rostral extensions of the retrobulbar AON area. This is in line with previously published neurochemical properties and the selective early, preclinical degener-ation of these cell clusters in neurodegenerative diseases. 


Palabras clave


Olfactory dysfunction; neuropile bridges; Parkinson’s disease; Disfunción olfatoria; puentes de neuropila; enfermedad de Parkinson

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Allison AC. 1954. The secondary olfactory areas in the human brain. J Anat 88: 481-88.

Berendse HW, Ponsen MM. 2006. Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease along the olfactory tract. J Neural Transm Suppl 70: 321-25.

Bhatnagar KP, Kennedy RC, Baron G, Greenberg RA. 1987. Number of mitral cells and the bulb volume in the aging human olfactory bulb: a quantitative morphological study. Anat Rec 218: 73-87.

Brunjes PC, Illig KR, Meyer EA. 2005. A field guide to the anterior olfactory nucleus (cortex). Brain Res Brain Res Rev 50: 305-35.

Crosby EC, Humphrey T. 1941. Studies of the vertebrate telencephalon. The nuclear pattern of the anterior olfactory nucleus, tuberculum olfactorium and the amygdaloid complex in adult man. J Comp Neurol 74: 309-52.

Doty RL. 2012. Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson disease. Nat Rev Neurol 15: 329-39.

Esiri MM, Wilcock GK. 1984. The olfactory bulbs in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 56-60.

Hoogland PV, Huisman E. 1999. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive structures in the aged human olfactory bulb and olfactory peduncle. J Chem Neuroanat 17: 153-61.

Hubbard PS, Esiri MM, Reading M, McShane R, Nagy Z. 2007. Alpha-synuclein pathology in the olfactory pathways of dementia patients. J Anat 211: 117-24.

Hyman BT, Arriagada PV, Van Hoesen GW. 1991. Pathologic changes in the olfactory system in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 640: 14-19.

Kovacs T, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL. 1999. Beta-amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the olfactory bulb in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 25: 481-91.

Kovacs T, Papp MI, Cairns NJ, Khan MN, Lantos PL. 2003. Olfactory bulb in multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 18: 938-42.

Ohm TG, Braak H. 1987. Olfactory bulb changes in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol 73: 365-69.

Pearce RK, Hawkes CH, Daniel SE. 1995. The anterior olfactory nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 10: 283-87.

Sato T, Hanyu H, Kume K, Takada Y, Onuma T, Iwamoto T. 2011. Difference in olfactory dysfunction with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 59: 947-48.

Smith RL, Baker H, Greer CA. 1993. Immunohistochemical analyses of the human olfactory bulb. J Comp Neurol 333: 519-30.

Ubeda-Bañon I, Saiz-Sanchez D, de la Rosa-Prieto C, Argañdona Palacios L, Garcia Muñozguren S Martinez-Marcos A. 2010. α-Synuclein in the human olfactory system in Parkinson’s disease: involvement of calcium-binding protein- and substance P-positive cells. Acta Neuropathol 119: 723-35.

Yoshimura N. 1988. Olfactory bulb involvement in Pick's disease. Acta Neuropathol 77: 202-05.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31051/1852.8023.v7.n1.14154

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2016 Steven Berendsen, Jocelyne V M Peters, Evelien Huisman, Willie Vörster, Piet Hoogland

http://www.anatclinar.com.ar; http://www.revistas.unc.edu.ar/index.php/anatclinar/index

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License