INCIDENCE OF ATLAS BRIDGES AND TUNNELS – THEIR PHYLOGENY, ONTOGENY AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. 26 Incidencia de los puentes y túneles del atlas – Su filogenia, ontogenia e implicancias clínicas

Autores/as

  • Monika Lalit Department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab
  • Sanjay Piplani Department of Pathology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab
  • Anterpreet K Arora Department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab
  • Jagdey S Kullar Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar
  • Tripta Sharma Department of Anatomy, Punjab Institute of Medical sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31051/1852.8023.v6.n1.14095

Palabras clave:

Atlas bridges, arcuate foramen, ponticuli, vertebral artery, Puentes del atlas, foramen arqueado, puentes, arteria vertebral

Resumen

En la vértebra atlas, los puentes posteriores, los puentes laterales y los túneles postero-laterales son las protrusiones óseas que pueden causar presión externa en la arteria vertebral cuando pasa  del foramen transverso de la vértebra cervical al foramen magnum del cráneo. Ejemplares que muestran dichas protrusiones fueron clasificadas según tengan puentes del atlas completos o incompletos que pueden predisponer a la insuficiencia vertebrobasilar y al síndrome cervicogénico especialmente durante los movimientos de cuello. El objetivo del estudio es saber la incidencia, ontogenia y filogenia de los puentes del atlas junto con las implicaciones clínicas. Este canal de la arteria vertebral del atlas y la morfología de los puentes fueron estudiados en un total de 60 (120 lados) vértebras atlas humanas completas y secas obtenidas de la colección de esqueletos del Departamento de Anatomía del Government Medical College de Amritsar en Punjab. La incidencia de la impresión de la arteria vertebral (44), la impresión profunda de la arteria vertebral (42) era 71,66%, el puente parcial fue 13,33% y el puente lateral parcial fue 3,33% en el lado derecho y 5% en lado izquierdo. También se observaron doce anillos completos y un túnel 1.66% postero-lateral. La ocurrencia de estos puentes óseos abrazando la arteria vertebral es de suma importancia clínica, pueden causar efecto de comprensión en la arteria vertebral durante la rotación extrema de la cabeza y movimientos de cuello manifestándose en mareos, desmayos, diplopía temporal, vértigo y desórdenes neurológicos. El conocimiento de esta variación es importante para médicos, otorrinolaringólogos, neurólogos y ortopedistas que en la práctica diaria están en contacto con estas enfermedades de la columna vertebral y sus consecuencias. 

 

In atlas vertebrae, the posterior bridges, lateral bridges and postero-lateral tunnels are the bony outgrowths which may cause external pressure on the vertebral artery when it passes from foramen transversarium of the cervical vertebra to foramen magnum of the skull. Specimens exhibiting such outgrowths were classified as having incomplete or complete atlas bridges that may predispose to vertebro-basilar insufficiency and cervicogenic syndrome especially in neck movements. The objective of the study is to know the incidence, ontogeny and phylogeny of atlas bridges along with its clinical implications. The groove of the vertebral artery of the atlas and the morphology of the bridges were studied in a total of 60 (120 sides) complete and dry human atlas vertebrae obtained from the skeletal collection of Department of Anatomy,GovernmentMedicalCollege,Amritsar,Punjab.  The incidence of impression of vertebral artery (44), deep impression of vertebral artery (42) was 71.66%, Partial ponticuli were 13.33% and Partial lateral ponticuli were 3.33% on right side and 5% on left side. Twelve complete rings and one 1.66% postero-latetal tunnel was also observed. Occurrence of these bony bridges embracing the vertebral artery is of great clinical importance, may cause compression effect on the vertebral artery during extreme rotation of head and neck movements presenting with dizziness, fainting, transient diplopia, vertigo and neurological disturbances. The knowledge of this variation is important for physicians, otolaryngologists, neurologists and orthopaedicians who in every day practice are in contact with the diseases of spine and their consequences. 

Citas

Allen W. 1879. The varieties of atlas in the human subject and the homologies of its transverse processes. J Anat 14: 18-28.

Burlet H. 1913. U¨ ber einen rudimentaren wirbelkorper an der spitze des dens epistropheui bei einem embryo von bradypus cuculli. Gegenbaurs morphol jahrb 45: 393–408.

Barge JAJ. 1918. Problems in kranio-vertebral Gebiet section. Verh K Akad Wetensch Amsterdam 20: 102-05.

Breathnach AS. 1965. Frazer’s Anatomy of human skeleton. 6th edition.London: J and A Churchill: 29.

Cleland M. 1860. On the serial homologies of the articular surfaces of the mammalian atlas, axis and occipital bone. Proc R Soc Edinb 2: 221.

Cushing KE, Ramesh V, Gardner-Medwin D, Todd N V, Gholkar A, Baxter P, Griffiths PD. 2001. Tethering of the vertebral artery in the congenital arcuate foramenof the atlas vertebra: a possible cause of vertebral artery dissection in children. Dev Med Child Neurol 43: 491-96.

Cacciola F, Phalke U, Goel A. 2004. Vertebral artery in relationship to C1 – C2 vertebrae: An anatomical study. Neurology India 52: 178-84.

Cakmak O, Gurdal E, Ekinci G, Yildiz E, Cavdar S. 2005. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance, Saudi Med J 26:1409–13.

Dhall U, Chhabra S, Dhal JC. 1993. Bilateral asymmetry in bridges and superior articular facets of atlas vertebra. Journal of anatomical society of india 42: 23-27.

Dahipale VP, Bahotee BH. 2009. The retroarticular vertebral artery ring of the atlas and its significance. J Anat Soc. India 58: 149-51.

Ercegovac N, Davidovic R. 1970. Foramen arcuale atlantis kao etiolski faktor vertebrobazilare insu®cijencijedekompresija arterije vertebralis. Vojnosanitetski pregled 10: 435-41.

Hayek H. 1927. Untersuchungen u ber epistropheus, atlas und hinterhauptsbein. Gegenbaurs morphologisches jahrbuch 58: 269-347.

Hasan M, Shukla S, Siddiqui MS, Singh D. 2001. Posterolateral tunnels and ponticuli in human atlas vertebrae. J Anat 199: 339-343.

Kendrick GA, Biggs NL. 1963. Incidence of the ponticulus posticus of the first cervical vertebra between ages six to seventeen. Anatomical Record 145: 449-451.

Le Double AF. 1912. Traiteu des variations de la colonne vertebrae de i'homme et de leur signification au point de vue de i'anthropologique zoologique. Paris: vigot frères.

Loth–Niemerycz J. 1916. Badania anatomiczne i antropologiczne nad kanalem wyrostkow poprzecznych (canalis transversarius) kregow szyowych czlowieka i malp. Prace towarzystwa naukowego warszawskiego 3: 1-92.

Lamberty BGH, Zivanovic S. 1973. The retroarticular vertebral artery ring of the atlas and its significance. Acta Anat 85: 113-22.

Le Minor JM. 1997. The retrotransverse foramen of the human atlas vertebra – A distinctive variant within primates. Acta Anat 160: 208-12.

McRae R. 1869. Notes on the development and variations of the atlas. J Anat Physiol 27: 519

Macalister A. 1869. Notes on the homologics and comparative anatomy of the atlas and axis. J Anat and Physiol 3: 54-64.

Macalister A. 1893. Notes on the development and variations of the atlas. J Anat and Physiol 27: 519-42.

Malhotra VK, Tewari SP, Bajpai RN. 1979. Study of vertebral artery foramen of atlas vertebra. JASI 28: 103-05.

Mitchell J. 1998a. The incidence and dimensions of the retroarticular canal of the atlas vertebra. Acta Anat 163: 113-20.

Mitchell J. 1998b. The incidence of the lateral bridge of atlas vertebra. Journal of Anatomy 193: 283-85.

Manjunath KY. 2001. Posterior bridging of the atlas vertebra in south Indians. Indian J Med Sci 55: 488-90.

Pyo J, Lowman RM. 1959. The ponticulus posticus of the first cervical vertebra. Radiology 72: 850-54.

Pande BS, Singh I. 1971. One sided dominance in upper limbs of human foetuses as evidenced by asymmetry in muscle and bone weight. JASI 109: 457-59

Parkin PJ, Wallis WE, Wilson JE. 1978. Vertebral artery occlusion following manipulation of the neck. N Z Med 88: 441-43.

Prescher A. 1997. The craniocervical junction in man, the osseous variations their significance and differential diagnosis. Annals of anatomy 179: 1-19.

Paraskevas G, Papaziogas B. 2005. Gross morphology of the bridges over vertebral artery groove on the atlas. Surgical and Radiological Anatomy 27: 129-36.

Piplani Lalit M, Singla RK, Kullar JS. 2013. Bilateral Arcuate Foramen in a Human Atlas Vertebra - A Case Report. IJARS 2: 3-6.

Radojevic S and Negtovanovic B. 1963. La gouttiere et les Anneaux osseux de l'artere vertebrale de l'atlas. Acta anatomica 55: 189-94.

Selby S, Garn SM, Kanareff V. 1955. The incidence and familial nature of a bony bridge on first cervical vertebra. American Journal of physical anthropology 13: 129-41.

Saunders SR, Popovich F. 1978. A family study of two skeletal variants. Atlas bridging and clinoid bridging. Am J Phs Anthropol 49: 193-204.

Stubbs DM. 1992. The arcuate foramen. Variabilities in distribution related to race and sex. Spine 17: 1502-04.

Serkan S. 2008. Posterior osseous bridging of C1. Journal of clinical neuroscience 15: 686-88.

Toro I, Szepe L. 1942. Untersuchungen u$ ber die frage der assimilation und manifestation des atlas. Zeitschrift fur anatomie und enwicklungsgeschichte 111: 186-200.

Taitz C, Nathan H. 1986. Some observations on the posterior and lateral bridge of the atlas. Acta Anat 127: 212-17.

Tubbs RS, Johnson PC, Shoja MM, Loukas M, Oakes WJ. 2007. Foramen Arcuale: Anatomical study and review of literature. J Neurosurg Spine 6: 31-34.

Von Torklus D, Gele W. 1972. The upper cervical spine. New York: Grunne and Stratton: 28-30.

White AA, Panjabi MM. 1978. The clinical bio-mechanics of the occipitoatlantoaxial complex. Orthop Clin North Am 9: 867-78.

William M, Newell RLM, Collin P. 2005. The back: cervical vertebrae. In: Standring S, Ellis H, Haely JC, Johson D, Williams A, Gray’s Anatomy. 39th edition. Edinburg, London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone: 742-46.

Yamamoto A. 2006. Ontogenetic change and geographical variation of atlas bridging in Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata). Anthropological Soc Nippon 114: 153-60.

Zambare BR, Reddy BB. 2011. The retroarticular ring of the atlas and its clinical significance. Anatomica Karnatka 5: 74-76.

Descargas

Publicado

2016-03-28

Cómo citar

Lalit, M., Piplani, S., Arora, A. K., Kullar, J. S., & Sharma, T. (2016). INCIDENCE OF ATLAS BRIDGES AND TUNNELS – THEIR PHYLOGENY, ONTOGENY AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. 26 Incidencia de los puentes y túneles del atlas – Su filogenia, ontogenia e implicancias clínicas. Revista Argentina De Anatomía Clínica, 6(1), 26–34. https://doi.org/10.31051/1852.8023.v6.n1.14095

Número

Sección

Contribuciones Originales