La saliva: una potencial herramienta en la Odontología

  • Silvina Barembaum Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Odontología
  • Ana Azcurra Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Odontología
Palabras clave: proteínas y péptidos salivales, biomarcadores, caries dental, enfermedades periodontales, cáncer oral

Resumen

La saliva es un líquido biológico de composición compleja que facilita las interacciones entre las células del huésped, los microorganismos bucales y los moduladores inmunológicos con el principal propósito de mantener el estado de salud bucal. Dentro de los componentes salivales, las proteínas son fundamentales por ser responsables de las principales funciones de la saliva. Los estudios proteómicos contribuyeron a identificar y caracterizar entre 2.000 a 2.600 proteínas y péptidos diferentes en su composición. Entre ellas, una alta proporción son glucoproteínas, como las mucinas, proteínas ricas en prolina e inmunoglobulinas, aglutininas, lactoferrina, cistatinas y lisozima. Además la saliva posee péptidos de potente actividad antimicrobiana y de protección a los tejidos minerales, como la catelicidina LL-37, ? y ? defensinas, histatinas y estaterinas. En particular, en los últimos años se ha profundizado la selección de biomarcadores de las enfermedades bucales como caries dental, enfermedades periodontales y cáncer bucal, considerando la sencilla, económica y poco invasiva obtención de este fluido, por lo que se ha impulsado el desarrollo de tecnologías para la detección de biomarcadores con alta sensibilidad y especificidad para una gran variedad de enfermedades bucales. El estudio de los componentes de la saliva y sus potenciales biomarcadores convierte a este fluido en una potente herramienta de diagnóstico y detección de enfermedades, como así también para evaluar la evolución de tratamientos terapéuticos, debido a que refleja el estado fisiológico y patológico del cuerpo.

Citas

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Publicado
2019-08-24
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