Estándares laborales mínimos, comercio bilateral y multilateral

Jean-Marc Siroen

Resumen


Los estándares laborales mínimos definidos por la OIT en 1998 son universales pero se aplican de manera muy diferente en los distintos países. El cumplimiento es mucho más alto en los países de altos ingresos. Sin embargo, la causalidad entre la mejora de las normas laborales y el crecimiento económico sigue siendo un tema controvertido. Las estrategias de crecimiento dirigidas por las exportaciones pueden alentar a los países en desarrollo a frenar el proceso de mejora de las normas. De esta forma, pueden aumentar el volumen de sus dotaciones de mano de obra no calificada (trabajo infantil y / o forzado) a fin de fortalecer su ventaja comparativa sobre los países que cumplen con los requisitos. Utilizamos un modelo de gravedad para evaluar el impacto comercial del nivel de cumplimiento de las normas laborales fundamentales, distinguiendo los efectos sobre el comercio bilateral (especialización geográfica) de los efectos multilaterales. Mostramos que los países que cumplen con las normas laborales tienden a comerciar más entre sí, mientras que los países que no cumplen tienden a comerciar más con los países que cumplen con los requisitos. Estos efectos se identifican principalmente con respecto al trabajo infantil y la libertad de asociación. Los países que cumplen con los estándares laborales tienden a ser menos abiertos, pero de manera diferente dependiendo de los estándares, con una relación no lineal para algunos de ellos. Los países menos dóciles pueden al mismo tiempo intensificar sus normas comerciales y laborales. Para los países medianos, principalmente los países emergentes, el nivel de cumplimiento de las normas laborales es "óptimo".


Palabras clave


Exportaciones; comercio internacional; normas laborales; OIT; modelos de gravedad

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Referencias


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